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Metal Turning

Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helical toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates. The tool´s axes of movement may be literally a straight line, or they may be along some set of curves or angles, but they are essentially linear (in the nonmathematical sense). Usually the term "turning" is reserved for the generation of external surfaces by this cutting action, whereas this same essential cutting action when applied to internal surfaces (that is, holes, of one kind or another) is called "boring". Thus the phrase "turning and boring" categorizes the larger family of (essentially similar) processes. The cutting of faces on the workpiece (that is, surfaces perpendicular to its rotating axis), whether with a turning or boring tool, is called "facing", and may be lumped into either category as a subset.


Types of Metalworking Lathes

Centre Lathe is a classic and universal lathe type used to manufacture cylindrical shapes from a range of materials. Lathes can e operated by people (manual lathes) or may be computer controlled (CNC machines) that have been programmed to carry out a particular task. Centre Lathe consists of Horizontal lathe bed, Headstock with Gearbox, Saddle with Tool Post and a Tailstock.

Center Lathes have typically swings in big size range covering:
- Watchmaker´s lathe is a bench type lathe with a distance between centers approx. 250mm, w/o automatic feed;
- Standard mechanical lathe with a distance between centers approx. 500 mm, with automatic horizontal and transverse feed and tools for thread cutting;
- Universal shop lathe with a distance between centers up to several meters, with automatic horizontal and transverse feed and tools for thread cutting;
- NC lathe is a standard lathe numerically of computer controlled (CNC).
- Turret lathe is used in mass production of small parts. Turret as an indexable tool holder allows multiple cutting operations to be performed, each with a different cutting tool, in easy, rapid succession, with no need for the operator to perform setup tasks in between, such as installing or uninstalling tools, etc. It is usually equipped with numerically or computer controlled functions.
The referenced machinery enables to standardize the manufacturing process to avoid the operators´ errors and to provide the complex parts.


Source : wikipedia - Turning

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